1st Texas Voluntary Infantry Regiment
The First Texas Infantry a.k.a. "Ragged First" was mustered into service beginning May 16, 1861 in New Orleans and surrendered at Appomattox Court House, Virginia on April 9, 1865. The regiment was structured in ten companies as follows:
Company A, B mustered into service in New Orleans, Louisiana "for one year". Companies begin leaving New Orleans in a body by the Mississippi Central rail Road to Grand Junction Tenn. And then east by Chattanooga, Knoxville and Bristol to Richmond. A grand ovation, music, cakes, pies, flowers, pretty girls and enthusiastic cheers greeted the regiment every where except at Knoxville, Tenn.
May 19, 1861
Company C mustered into service in New Orleans, Louisiana "for one year"
May 28, 1861
Company F mustered into service in New Orleans, Louisiana"for one year"
June 1, 1861
Companies begin arriving Richmond Virginia. 1st Texas is formed By this date the entire 1st Regiment had arrived in Richmond with Wigfall as colonel, Hugh McLeod as Lieutenant Colonel and A.T. Raney as Major. Encamped at the "Fair Grounds" Richmond drilling and learning the manual of arms and guard duty while awaiting arrival of remaining companies.
June 6, 1861
Company D, E mustered into service in New Orleans "for one year"
June 21, 1861
1st Texas order from its encampment in Richmond to Dumfries, Va.
June 23, 1861
Company G mustered into service in Palestine, Texas "for the war"June 24, 1861
Company H, I mustered into service in New Orleans, Louisiana "for the war"
July 21, 1861
Rushed to a long special train of box cars and started over the Richmond and Fredricksville rail road late in the afternoon for Manassas junction in a pouring rain. Floods and rain had fallen during the day and it was dark and rainy as we steamed northward with what is called a ‘double header" i.e. an engine in front and one in the rear of our long train containing about 1300 men. About 9:00pm the train dashed into a washout culvert, and a frightful wreck ensued. About 40 young men were killed and crippled, and half a dozen cars crushed into kindle wood.
July 22, 1861
The command after caring for its dead and wounded went on. The regiment reached Manassas junction during the morning and walked over the battle field to camp across Bull Run. The bloody prints of war were view. The cries of the suffering could be heard as well as the shouts of victory.
July 23-30 , 1861
Pursed fleeing elements of Union army.
July 31, 1861
Returned to Dumfries Va.
Company K mustered into service near Richmond Virginia "for the war"
The Fourth and Fifth Texas were officially assigned with the First Texas, per General Orders No. 15. On the same day, Brig. Gen. Louis T. Wigfall was designated commander of the 2nd Corps Fifth Brigade, Fourth Division, Potomac District, Dept. of Northern Virginia commanded by Gen. Joseph E. Johnston. Wigfall's Brigade consisted of the three Texas regiments and a Louisiana regiment of unknown designation.
Colonel Wigfall appointed Brigadier. Lieutenant Colonel Hugh McLeod was made regimental commander a veteran of the Texas war of Independence and earnest while commander of the Sante Fe expedition in 1841. Major A.T Rainey was the Major of the First, a lawyer.
The regiment was manning the Potomac defense line in Northern Virginia based at Camp Texas.
November 12, 1861
On the night of November 12, the Fourth and Fifth Texas broke bivouac and began a march for Dumfries, hastened by an urgent request from General Wigfall for assistance in repelling a large Federal force which had supposedly crossed the Potomac and entrenched above the Occoquan River. The march was moonless and muddy, and many troops fell by the wayside.
November 13, 1861
The exhausted 4th and 5th regiments Texas arrived in Dumfries only to learn that Co. Wigfall had sounded a false alarm. This action was immediately followed by another false report of a Federal advance further down the Potomac.. The entire brigade was formed scurried north toward the Occoquan to meet the nonexistent threat. Thus the men under Cols. John B. Hood and James J. Archer learned of the panicky nature of their brigade commander. Fortunately, they were not destined to suffer long.
November 16, 1861
Col. Wigfall was elected by the Texas Legislature to represent the Lone Star State in the Confederate Senate.
November 17, 1861
First Texas went into winter camp - Camp Quantico near Quantico Creek with short rations.
November 18, 1861
Joined by the Eighteenth Georgia Infantry under the command of Col. William T. Wofford. The Georgians set up their Camp Fisher near the Potomac between Powell's Run and Neabsco Creek. Thus were joined the first four regiments of Wigfall's (later Hood's) Texas Brigade.
As 1861 slipped into its final month, the regiments of the Texas Brigade began a routine of patrolling and entrenching along the Potomac, foraging supplies from the local citizens, constructing winter quarters, and keeping themselves entertained. The brigade was responsible for guarding the Virginia-side of the Potomac from Occoquan Creek to Quantico Creek -- a distance of about ten miles. The false alarms of northern invasions continued to be sounded by the jumpy Gen. Wigfall, whose judgment in such instances was often clouded by his fondness for hard cider. Joseph B. Polley of the Fourth Texas wrote that ``Wigfall's imagination was too often quickened by deep potations to be reliable.'' By mid-winter, Cols. Hood and Archer of the Fourth and Fifth Texas began ignoring the long rolls coming from brigade headquarters. The impending harsh winter weather forced the members of the brigade to scour the surrounding countryside for materials from which to build suitable winter quarters. Log cabins became popular, but so did plank structures built with timbers stolen from nearby homesteads, both abandoned and not. A Mr. Dunnington of Dumfries wrote to Confederate authorities on December 16 that when he arrived at his future home, he ``found every plank taken from the stable, the office removed, the kitchen and servant's house all gone but the brick chimneys, the shed portions of the dwelling entirely gone, the window-sash and doors and weather-boarding torn off and carried away, the fencing gone, and what I expected to be my future home a complete wreck... The enemy have not destroyed any man's property so completely.'' Because of bad weather, few large-scale drills or formations were held. The troops chiefly employed themselves with cooking, eating, sleeping, picketing, and policing the camp. For amusement, the troops engaged in playing cards, ``news walking'' (spreading news and gossip), visiting relatives and friends in nearby regiments, hunting, visiting the brigade sutler, or attending the ``Lone Star Theater''. The theater was made up of professional and amateur actors, musicians, and singers who organized themselves into brass bands, choirs, and an acting troupe known as ``Hood's Minstrels.'' Despite these distractions, the troops did suffer some hardships. According to Polley, ``The one monotony was the staying in one place -- the grievous lack was feminine society.''
January 1, 1862
The first month of 1862 brought little activity to the Texas Brigade outside the daily rituals of camplife. For most of the winter of 1861-1862, the brigade was, like the rest of the army, practically immobile because of the severe sickness that swept through the camps. J. B. Polley of the Fourth Texas noted that his regiment and the Fifth Texas were particularly hard hit. The principle ailments were measles, rheumatism, diarrhea, and typhoid fever. J. M. Polk of Company I, Fourth Texas wrote, ``...our losses in the winter of 1861 from sickness and exposure, incident to camp life were very heavy. I had the measles; had a relapse and developed a case of typhoid-pneumonia, and my fate was uncertain for about six weeks. For ten or twelve days I did not eat a mouthful of anything. Mrs. Oliver, a citizen of Richmond, had me removed to her house, and by close attention, managed to pull me through.'' Many of the Texas Brigade were lost to disease before ever firing a shot in battle. During the winter of 1861-62, scouts from the Texas Brigade would frequently cross the Occoquan River and infiltrate the Federal picket line on the north bank. Mostly, these ``raids'' went undetected.
January 2, 1862
Lieut. Col Rainey promoted Colonel of First Texas.Lieut Col. Hugh McLeod dies of pneumonia. Major Harvey Black promoted Lieut. Col.
February 20, 1862
Brig. Gen. Louis T. Wigfall finally resigned his military commission and assumed his civilian seat in Richmond. Texas Brigade was passed to the senior colonel in the brigade, Col. James J. Archer of the Fifth Texas Infantry.
February 28, 1862
A party of ten scouts from the First and Fifth Texas Regiments found themselves in a deserted house near Pohick Run, surrounded by a large detachment of Federal cavalry and infantry. The Yankee commander, Lt. Col. Burk of the 37th New York Infantry, demanded the Texans' surrender. A short firefight ensued, until an imaginative Texan yelled from a second story window, ``Hurra boys, [Wade] Hampton's coming, I hear him on the bridge.'' Hearing this, Lt. Col. Burk and his men promptly fled the scene, leaving their dead behind. Hampton, of course, was nowhere to be seen., James S. Spratling of Co. E, First Texas. Spratling was the first member of the Texas Brigade to be killed in action.
Assigned Texas Brigade, Whiting's-G.W. Smith's-Whiting's Division, Army of Northern Virginia
Buried the dead Federals and tended to the wounded.
March 2, 1862
Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, commander of the Dept. of Northern Virginia, ordered all Confederate troops along the Potomac River to abandon their line and move southward to Fredericksburg.
March 5, 1862
A detail of 20 men from each of the Texas regiments was sent up to Occoquan Creek to serve as a rear guard for Hampton's South Carolina Legion as it moved south.
Brigade finally moves south to Rappahannock defense line in Virginia. Colonel Hood promoted to Brigadier General. Archer returned to his former command as colonel of the Fifth Texas. Hood's new rank of brigadier general was dated March 8. Excess clothing and baggage sent to the Texas Depot in Richmond and departed camp to South and Southwest. The Texas Brigade left its camps near Dumfries and reluctantly moved south. Noting the bitter disappointment and low morale as it ``retreated'' toward Fredericksburg, The men marched on, carrying only their personal belongings, frying pans, and camp kettles. Only one wagon was allowed for every two companies. The remainder of their possessions, tents, and cooking utensils were left behind to prevent the Yankees from discovering that the camps had been abandoned. The Texas Brigade marched eight miles on bad roads that day, finally camping at 10 pm on the south bank of Chopawamsic Creek.
March 9, 1862
The brigade continued its ``mud march'' another 8 miles and went into bivouac on Austin's Run near Stafford Court House. Many of the men throw away their personal baggage on the march. Marched into camp before dark. The regiments are camped on two hills facing each other.
Marched to within 4 miles of Fredericksburg. First Sergeant Oscar Downs of the Fourth Texas wrote in his diary, ``The roads are awful and my shoulders are nearly bleeding from carrying a heavy knapsack. I thought several times that I was broken down, but as I was the Orderly I could not give up.''
March 11, 1862
March 12, 1862
Crossed the Rappahannock River at Falmouth, and went into camp in a beautiful pine orchard about two miles west of Fredericksburg. The Rappahannock was now the new Confederate defensive line. Col. Hood received orders from Richmond that he was to assume command of the brigade from Col. Archer, his senior in rank by a few days. Col A.T. Rainey takes command of the First.
March 13, 1862
A scavenging and scouting party was organized. The party of 48 was to return to Dumfries, Va with the hope of capturing or killing Yankees and recovering as much Confederate property as they could handle.
March 14, 1862
Brigade camped at Fredericksburg.
March 20, 1862
The raiding party sent out on the 13th captures many prisoners, reclaimed much of the abandoned property, and burned the huts that had protected them throughout the harsh winter. One of the prisoners was a Chinese servant who made the mistake of ``giving lip'' to Pvt. J. C. Barker of Co. G, Fourth Texas. Barker placed the ``ruthless invader'' across his lap and administered a belt lashing that the servant had probably not received since childhood. Such scouting and scavenging parties to Dumfries would be common until the brigade's next movement early the following month. They destroy the camp and march back with as much property as they can carry.
April 2, 1862
Federals try to capture raiding party and entire brigade is mobilized but Federal force escapes. The Brigade camps the night and marched back to Fredericksburg in the morning
The regiment played hide and seek with the Excelsior Brigade from New York during the night. 1Sgt. D.B. Samuel resigned. Union General Dan Sickles and his New York Excelsior Brigade crossed the Potomac near Chopawamsic Creek and marched south to Stafford Court House, eight miles north of Fredericksburg. The Excelsiors were the same troops that had tangled with Texas scouts near Pohick Run just over a month before. The Excelsiors again encountered scouts from Hood's Brigade near Aquia Church and engaged them in a skirmish. The overwhelmed scouts withdrew. The Texas Brigade was dispatched to the scene. Hood's brigade marched out at 10 pm, with the Fifth Texas in the van and the 18th Georgia in the rear. The brigade marched all night, but failed to contact Sickles' force.
April 4, 1862
Brigade called out for an all night forced march to repel a Yankee brigade that had crossed the Potomac but they had crossed back before the Brigade could be engage. Spent the night in a snowstorm on an exposed hill south of Dumfries.
April 5, 1862
Began march back to camp by way of Falmouth in the morning.
April 6, 1862
Hood received orders to prepare his brigade for a southward march on an hour's notice. Stragglers and foragers were to be severely disciplined.
The regiment pulled out of the Rappahannock defense line and started the march to Yorktown. The brigade marched through sleet, snow, and rain to Milford Station on the railroad below Fredericksburg. Without blankets and tools for building fires, the brigade spent a miserable day soaked and chilled to the bone. Hood remarked that it was ``the severest weather that he had ever experienced on a march.'' When the troops reached a very wide and waist-deep creek along the way, they waited for Hood to come up and give direction. The new brigadier promptly dismounted his horse and plunged into the creek, exhorting his men to follow. They did so without hesitation.
April 8, 1862
Arrived Milford (Fredericksburg). Boarded cars of the Richmond, Fredericksburg, and Potomac Railroad for a 21 mile trip southward to Ashland
April 10, 1862
Arrived Ashland. Here the brigade rested, drilled, and cleaned their equipment.
April 14, 1862
Began the last 85 miles of its march down the peninsula to Yorktown.
Arrived Yorktown after a leisurely and uneventful trip, and took went into camp two miles west of town near trenches dug during the Revolutionary War. Hood's men were tired of the marching, drilling, and inactivity. The Brigade in fine spirits... and anxious for a fight feeling perfectly confident that we can and will beat the enemy. The men were soon called upon to provide sharpshooters to harass Yankee scouts and skirmishers who closely approached the Confederate works. The Federals soon learned the effectiveness of Enfield rifles in the hands of the Texans and Georgians, and they quickly ceased their infiltrations. Stationed in defensive lines near Yorktown harassing union troops besieging Yorktown.
April 26, 1862
Stationed in defensive lines near Yorktown harassing union troops besieging Yorktown. Held a dress parade.
May 3, 1862
Gen. Joseph E. Johnston ordered the Confederate forces at Yorktown to withdraw north toward Richmond. The Texas Brigade was detailed as the rear guard. Johnston's intended surprise move, however, was spoiled by looting Confederate cavalry who accidentally set off hidden mines and precipitated a large fire in the town.
May 4, 1862
The Texas Brigade cleared the burning Yorktown by the morning acting as rear guard for the main body which had departed the day before., by 10 AM passed through the main Confederate line drawn up near Williamsburg, and camped four miles north-east of town on the road to Barnhamsville. Torrential rains this day. Mud makes roads almost impassable.
Company M mustered into service at Sumter, Texas. Whiting's Division marched northwest through the hamlet of Burnt Ordinary toward Eltham's Landing (or West Point) on the Pamunkey River. Whiting was ordered to prevent the landing of a large amphibious force under Union Gen. William B. Franklin which was advancing along the Pamunkey. After an exhausting 14-mile march through rain and mud, Whiting's men fell into bivouac north of Barnhamsville and 2 miles from Eltham's Landing.
May 6, 1862
Heavy rain this day. Whiting's Division remained in bivouac through day awaiting -- as ordered -- its lagging supply trains. The commissary permitted the troops to forage the countryside, and Gen. Hood's men took full advantage of a nearby corn crib. Chaplain Davis wrote that ``such corn-cracking as followed has seldom been heard outside a hog-pen.'' Meanwhile, Whiting advanced Texas scouts and skirmishers to determine Franklin's location and strength. Word was returned that Franklin was putting ashore infantry and artillery in the vicinity of Eltham's Landing. Contact was made that night, as shots were exchanged between opposing scouts and pickets.
Attacked Yankees at Elthem’s Landing and drove them back into the river. At ten o'clock Whiting's forces took up the march as the rear most Confederate division with the Texas Brigade assuming the function of the rear guard of the entire Southern army. That night, Whiting ordered Hood and Hampton to lead their brigades back to their bivouac area north of Barnhamsville and remain there until the trains had cleared the road to Richmond. Lieut Col. Harvey H Black is Killed.
May 8, 1862
Resumed march to Richmond 2 hours before dawn. Several times during the slow retreat the Texans had to face about and fight off the Federal advance guard. The mud along the retreat was so deep that the ``boys would be sounding the mud and water like sailors sound the sea. All up and down the line they would be halooing `ankle deep, knee deep, thigh deep, etc.'''
May 9, 1862
Overtook army by 12:00 and reached Long Bridge on the Chickohominy by afternoon. Bivouaced in a lural grove. Brigade became the last Confederate unit to cross the Chickahominy and bivouacked on the south side of the river at 10pm.
After being relieved from duty in the front lines the regiment marched towards Richmond and camped at "Pine Island" three miles northeast of the city on the Mechanicsville Turnpike.
Camped at Pine Island. The regiment re-enlisted and reorganized. Rainey was elected Colonel, Work as Lieutenant Colonel, Dale as Major.
May 22, 1862
Marched across the Chickahominy at Meadow Bridge as part of an ill-planned offensive against the Federals. After hiding all day in woods, marched back to camps. A few days later, Johnston enacted a second plan to attack the Federals south of the Chickahominy before they could be reinforced from north of the river. Bivouac at Pine Island about 3 miles Northeast of Richmond on the Mechanicsville Turnpike
The Battle of Seven Pines. The regiment was not directly engaged in the battle either of the two days. Held in reserve suffering fire from artillery and long range musketry. 200 men go out on the 31st and 1st to act as sharpshooters.
Assigned Texas Brigade, Whiting's Division, Valley District, Dept. of Northern Virginia
June 2, 1862
Engaged in minor skirmishing near Richmond.
June 3, 1862
With both armies positioned as they were before Seven Pines, Lee reorganized his army. Hood's Brigade was strengthened with the addition of Hampton's Legion -- eight infantry companies from South Carolina. For the next week, approximately 200 officers and men of the Texas Brigade were detailed to act as spies, scouts, and sharpshooters in a search for weaknesses in the Federal lines. According to Rev. Davis, these men ``operated beyond and independently of the regular pickets, and soon became at terror to the enemy.''
June 7, 1862
Overran the 71st Pennsylvania, capturing, wounding, or killing about 50 of the enemy in the rout.
Whiting's Division was ordered to march to Richmond as the first step toward reinforcing Gen. T. J. ``Stonewall'' Jackson in the Shenandoah Valley. (Lee planned to fool the Federals into thinking that Jackson, fresh from his highly successful Valley Campaign, was turning his sights on Washington. Lee hoped this feint would keep Maj. Gen. Irvin McDowell's 30,000-man corps close to Washington, thereby preventing McDowell from reinforcing McClellan.) By 5 pm, the Texas Brigade and Whiting's old brigade (now under the command of Colonel Evander Law) marched from their camps through Richmond and over the James River to the depot of the Richmond and Danville Railroad, where they spent the night. Along the way, the men were ordered to make loud demonstrations to ensure that word of their movement would be sent North.
Boarded the Richmond and Danville trains and six days later after 235 miles and many changes of trains arrived at Staunton, Virginia.
Jackson and Whiting marched eastward through the Blue Ridge toward Charlottesville. Boarding the Virginia Central Railroad at Meecham's Station, the Texas Brigade alternatively rode and marched to Frederick Hall, about 35 miles Northwest of Richmond. The area had many apple jack-mills and many of the men sample too much along the way.
After passing through Charlottesville they went to Gordonsville and then onto Frederick Hall north-west of Richmond. The men had travelled almost 400 miles in 10 days.
The regiment detrained at Frederick Hall and marched toward Ashland.
The regiment arrived at Ashland, receiving their rations and ammunition issue here.
Assigned Texas Brigade, Whiting's Division, 2nd Corps, Army of Northern Virginia
Skirmish in the vicinity of Totopotomy Creek. Col Rainey commanding. Hood's Brigade led Jackson's Army Southeast through Ashland toward the village of Cold Harbor, just north of the Chickahominy. Along the way, Hood's men were impeded by skirmishing Federal outposts, felled trees, and burned bridges. Among them was part of a Pennsylvania regiment called "Bucktails" from a long imitation deer tails in their caps. From the south came the sounds of the battle now raging at Mechanicsville. (Gen. A. P. Hill initiated Lee's offensive against McClellan without the planned assistance from Jackson, who had lingered too long at Frederick Hall and Ashland. Hill was repulsed with heavy losses.) That evening, Jackson's men reached Hundley's Corner, where they bivouacked for the night.
The Battle of Gaine's Mill. Col Rainey commanding. Made contact with 7th New Jersey at Gaine’s Mill. Attacked at 6:00 PM and drove them from their defensive positions enemy at Gaine’s Mill. Col Rainey is wounded and returned to Texas on disability furlough never to return to regiment. Command passes to Lieut Col. Work.
June 28, 1862
Day was spent tending to the dead and wounded.
Assigned Texas Brigade, Whiting's-Hood's Division, 1st Corps, Army of Northern Virginia
The Battle of Malvern Hill. Lieut Col. Work commanding. The Texas Brigade left its bivouac near White Oak Swamp and moved with Lee's army toward Malvern Hill, where McClellan had massed his artillery and infantry to protect the Union supply base at Harrison's Landing. Along the way, Whiting's Division encountered light opposition from the Federal rear guard and occasionally came under fire from long-range Yankee artillery. By 11 am, the two brigades deployed on the extreme left of Lee's position to guard the Confederate artillery massed there. To their extreme right, Lee was sending his divisions piecemeal into suicidal attacks against the strongly entrenched Union infantry and artillery on Malvern Hill. Hood's front, on the other hand, was relatively calm. Having learned from his scouts of an open avenue of attack to his left, Hood requested permission to assault the exposed Federal right flank. Whiting refused, so the Texas Brigade remained in place absorbing Federal artillery shells for the rest of the day. Hood's Brigade suffered 52 casualties on the day -- 6 killed, 45 wounded, and 1 missing.
July 2, 1862
Camped at Malvern Hill and Harrison Landing McClellan was gone, having fallen back to the safety of his gunboats down the James River. Richmond was no longer threatened.
July 8, 1862
Ordered to march to camp on the Mechanicsville Road three miles from Richmond between the Central rail Road and The Mechanicsville pike.
July 9, 1862
March towards Richmond. Heavy rains drenched the Seven Days' battlefields and exposed many of the hastily buried dead along the Chickahominy. The stench from men and horses was intolerable.
July 10, 1862
The brigade arrived near Richmond and was ordered into camp between the Virginia Central Railroad and the Mechanicsville Pike, three miles northeast of the city. The Texans pitched their tents on exactly the spot from which they marched to Seven Pines on the morning of May 31. Time spent refitting and reequipping made easier by the large amount of captured Federal equipment and clothing.
July 11, 1862
Camped on the Mechanicsville Road three miles from Richmond. Hundreds of wounded from the Texas Brigade were scattered about Richmond. Many of the wounded were confined at Chimborazo Hospital on the city's east side. Hospitals as very unsanitary.
July 26, 1862
Gen. Whiting was given a thirty-day furlough for disability. Whiting's difficulty may have been mental rather than physical, as he was often reported to have been under the influence of whiskey or narcotics. Command of the division was assumed by Gen. Hood, the senior of the division officers.
Ordered to leave its camp near Richmond as part of a movement by Gen. James Longstreet's command to reinforce Gen. Stonewall Jackson's divisions north of the Rapidan. (Gen. Robert E. Lee had sent Jackson across the river to flank Union General John Pope's newly formed Army of Virginia before it could advance southward against Richmond.) Under light marching orders, the Texas Brigade moved out on Brook Pike and followed the line of the Virginia Central Railroad toward Louisa Court House. A company of men from Trinity County, Texas, joined the brigade as Co. M of the First Texas. They would be the 32nd and last new company to arrive east from Texas. Extensively hot weather. Average 13 miles per day
The march was leisurely until word was received of Jackson's indecisive engagement with Union Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks' corps at Cedar Mountain two days before. Longstreet's command was ordered to march quickly from Gordonsville to the south bank of the Rapidan, where Jackson had fallen back. Longstreet reached the Rapidan
The regiment reached Raccoon Ford on the Rapidan River.
Lee ordered Jackson and Longstreet across the Rapidan in pursuit of Pope, who was withdrawing northward to the Rappahannock in the face of Lee's combined force. The Texas Brigade crossed the Rapidan River at Raccoon Ford and led Longstreet's advance.
Skirmish at Freeman's Ford. Encountered Yankees and drove them back across the Rappahanock River in light fighting.
August 22, 1862
Lt. Col. J. C. Upton of the Fifth Texas led a heavy line of skirmishers against the Federals at Freeman's Ford and cleared the way for the rest of the Texas Brigade to cross the Rappahannock. The river was crossed late that afternoon, and the brigade bivouacked for the night north of the river at the edge if a large cornfield. It rained so hard that evening that the brigade's commissary wagons were unable to ford the river, and the brigade went supperless. Camped on the shores of the Rappahanock
The regiment was involved in the incident of the "Roasting Ears Fight". A number of the brigade entered the cornfield (against Lee's explicit order against foraging) to secure breakfast. Unknown to the Texans, a large Federal scouting party from Gen. Franz Sigel's Federal Division had camped on the northern edge of the same cornfield. The inevitable encounter between the opposing forces in the middle of the cornfield resulted in fist fighting, wrestling, and volleys of roasting ears. Outnumbered, the Federals soon withdrew, leaving the Texans in sole possession of the field. To appease the hunger of his troops in a manner suitable to Gen. Lee, Texas Brigade Quartermaster J. H. Littlefield purchased the entire 100-acre cornfield. Foraging thus became an authorized activity, and the each of Hood's men found himself well satisfied with the spoils of the ``Roasting Ears Fight.'' Camped on the shores of the Rappahanock.
While the men were preparing their meal, they received orders to march immediately.
The regiment Bivouacked near Waterloo Bridge for the night.
At 2 pm Longstreet ordered the brigade from Waterloo Bridge toward Throughfare Gap in the Bull Run Mountains, where they were to once again support Jackson's command which had gained the rear of Pope's army near Manassas Junction and cut off the enemy's communication with Washington. The Texas Brigade went through Orlean, marched all night.
Waded the headwaters of Carter's Run early in the morning. Crossed the Manassas Gap Railroad at Salem that afternoon and bivouacked for the night at White Plains. Covered 40 miles in two days. The incident of "The Old Gray Mare Came Tearing Out of the Wilderness", which became a favorite marching song of the Texans and is now known as "The Old Gray Mare".
After a scanty breakfast, the brigade resumed its march and reached thoroughfare Gap by mid-afternoon. The march had been a punishing one: 30 miles with heavy packs on dusty roads under a cloudless sky in the August heat. Longstreet's men found Thoroughfare Gap guarded by Gen. James B. Rickett's Division of Gen. Irvin McDowell's Corps. Longstreet ordered Hood's Division and two brigades of Gen. D. R. Jones' Division to clear the Gap, which they promptly did. By evening the brigade was leading Longstreet's command through Thoroughfare Gap to the east slopes of the Bull Run Mountains. From this vantage point, the flashes of Jackson's guns engaged at Groveton, ten miles east could be seen.
The Battle of Second Manassas. Lieut Col. Work commanding . Attacked at 7:00 PM and drove back the Yankees at near Groveton.
August 30, 1862
Moved against Chinn Ridge in the morning. Routed a line of New York Zouaves, the brigade moved on to capture a Union Battery and then cleared the Yankees out of woods at the foot of the ridge.
Camped at the Manasas battle field. Tended to the dead and wounded. Bivouacs near Henery House Hill Relieved the dead Federal soldiers of their socks, shoes and clothing.
Marched toward Western Maryland and Pennsylvania.
September 3, 1862
At Leesburg Pike they harass the rear of the retreating Federal army capturing a wagon train which supplies the Confederates with guns, small arms, wagons, knapsacks, cartridge boxes, canteens, haversacks, blankets, overcoats camp kettles tin cups and every accoutrement of war March north averaging ten miles per day.
The regiment crossed over the Potomac River at White's Ford with the band serenading the troops with "Maryland, My Maryland".
Reached Buckeystown, and camped three miles south of Frederick on the banks of the Monocacy River in the vicinity of the B & O Railroad bridge. Here they rested for two days, bathing in the river and assisting in the destruction of the bridge.
Taking up their march again the regiment tramped northward through the Maryland countryside.
September 11, 1862
Leaving Frederick, marched north-west on the macadamized Washington Pike and passed through the Catoctin Mountains. During the next two days, the column marched through Turner's Gap in South Mountain to Boonsboro, and then through Funkstown to Hagerstown. Here, the Texas Brigade went into bivouac, about five miles below the Pennsylvania line.
September 12, 1862
Marched through Turner's Gap in South Mountain to Boonsboro, and then through Funkstown to Hagerstown. Went into bivouac, about five miles below the Pennsylvania line. The brigade has becoming quite ragged. No clothing or shoes have been furnished since Richmond. Many are barefoot. Lack of provisions have forced men to subsist on green apples and corn. But the men are in high spirits ready for battle.
The regiment was at Hagerstown just below the Pennsylvania border. Received orders to return to South Mountain. The Battle of South Mountain. Lieut Col. Work commanding. Hot dry day. Entire Brigade cheered to General Lee to "Give us Hood!" which he obliged. Began 10 mile march to Boonsboro, MD to aid of D.H. Hill who need help holding off a strong force including the Iron Brigade. A bayonet charge held the field until night fall. Retreated toward Sharpsburg seven miles away. No enemy pursuit that night.
Fell back west and south taking a position behind Antietam Creek near the village of Sharpsburg, Maryland. On this movement the regiment along with the Brigade again formed the rear guard. Men are finding it difficult to keep awake and moving
Marched 13 miles to Sharpsburg to concentration army around Sharpsburg. Took up position in an open field in front of a Dunker Church north of Sharpsburg. The regiment is involved in preliminary fighting at Sharpsburg. Lieut Col. Work commanding. About an hour before sunset met a probe by Hooker’s Corps and fought a brief battle that caused the Yankees to retire. Rtired to a covered position and spent the night cooking the first rations that had been issued in several days.
The Battle of Sharpsburg. Lieut Col. Work commanding. At 6:00 AM ordered to prepare to advance to support Lawton’s divsion in a cornfield North of the church. Reduced Hooker’s to shambles. Retired at about 9:00 A.M. and held in reserve for the rest of the day. The Wigfall flag was lost in the cornfield. Of the Brigade, 519 out of 854 men (82.5%) are killed or wounded.
Remained in battle positions during the day. That night the regiment crossed over the Potomac at Boteler's Ford near Shephardstown.
September 27, 1862
Moved to a location five miles northeast of Winchester. The brigade rested, recuperated, and reorganized for the remainder of the month for occasional drill and new uniforms and equipment. Pvt. McGee paroled from the Federals Still short of shoes. Food was ample.. Received mail since the first time leaving Richmond
Went into camp 20 miles north of Winchester along the Opequan Creek in the Shenandoah Valley.
October 8, 1862
Longstreet deemed his command fit enough for a formal review. In full battle array, the men of the First Corps marched before a reviewing party that included Gen. Lee and many local dignitaries. The men proudly displayed their battle-torn colors in the parade.
October 10, 1862
Announced that Hood had been promoted to Major General. Henceforth, the formation is now known as Hood’s Division.
Broke camp at Winchester, VA begin march toward Culpeper Courthouse. Moved south passing through Winchester, Kerntown and Newtown. averaging 10 miles per day. Fall weather is very fine and nice for marching.
Turned east passed through the mountains at Manassas Gap.
The brigade moved to a new camp in the vicinity of the Cedar Mountain battlefield, about six miles south of Culpeper. At this time, the shortage of shoes in the Confederacy's quartermaster depots had become critical. Shoes smuggled through the Union blockade from England were shoddily made and soon wore out. General Longstreet attempted to remedy the situation by ordering that green hides be used, hairy side in, as for moccasin-type footwear. These ``Longstreet Moccasins'' were found to be impractical in the mud and slush of the Virginia roadsMarch toward Culpeper Courthouse Went into camp in the vicinity of Culpeper Court House.
November 7, 1862
The Inspector General of the Army of Northern Virginia, Col. Edwin J. Harvie, inspected the Texas Brigade and Maj. B. W. Frobel's three artillery batteries, including Capt. James Reilly's North Carolina Battery. Harvie noted that all five regiments of the Texas Brigade were badly clothed and shod, and 440 men (roughly one-third of the brigade at the time) were barefooted. The First Texas was the worst clothed, and only the Fifth Texas and Hampton's Legion presented their firearms in ``fine order.'' Reilly's Battery, on the other hand, impressed Harvie with the condition and appearance of its guns and men. Although Harvie blamed the regimental officers for the poor state of their men, Hood no doubt shared some of the blame for his lack of administrative attentiveness as division commander
The brigade left its Cedar Mountain camp and marched as the rear of Longstreet's force toward Fredericksburg. (Longstreet begain marching his corps in this direction on November 14, in response to a flanking maneuver by the Union Army of the Potomac, now under the command of Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside.) Following the Alexandria and Orange Railroad south, the Texas Brigade passed through Rapidan Station and Madison Court House to Orange Court House. Broke camp and marched toward Fredericksburg. roke camp and crossed over the Rapidan and bivouacked on the south bank of the river.
November 20 - 21, 1862
Marched 16 miles and camped near Spotsylvania Court House the night of the 21st.
Arrived Fredericksburg. . Despite a 60-mile march over muddy roads, the brigade completed the movement in four days. Received public charity in form of 500 pairs of socks and shoes, gloves, socks as well as wearing apparel.
The Eighteenth Georgia and Hampton's Legion were officially detached.. In their place were assigned the eleven companies of the Third Arkansas, formerly of John G. Walker's Division. The Third Arkansas, the only ``Razorback'' regiment in the Army of Northern Virginia, had now joined the only three Texas regiments in Lee's army. Like the Eighteenth Georgia before it, the Third Arkansas would later be affectionately called the ``Third Texas'' by the men of the Lone Star State.
Spent the early part of December drilling, picketing the Rappahannock, and building breastworks along its position near Fredericksburg. The weather was cold, and picket duty -- without adequate clothing and footwear -- was miserable. To keep warm, the brigade's pickets commandeered as a headquarters the Bernard Mansion, located near the Rappahannock not far from the mouth of Deep Run. Constant vigilance was needed as Burnside's army was poised for attack at any time.
December 6, 1862
Camped Fredericksburg. Drill four or five hours a day. Weather turns very cold with a heavy snow. Men construct 2 and 3 man huts called dog houses, floored with dry leaves.
December 13, 1862
Federal pontoons were laid across the Rappahannock and the Union army was across the river and occupying Fredericksburg. The Federals commenced pillaging and destroying anything of value that could be found in the nearly vacant town.
The Battle of Fredericksburg. Lieut Col. Work commanding. Yanks are driven back across the river.
December 14, 1862
Shortly after the Federal withdrawal from Fredericksburg, the Confederates reoccupied the pillaged and desolate town. The fields and streets were filled with dead and wounded Federals. Burial parties hastily interred the Federal dead after taking from them those items no longer needed. As the dead were being buried, the citizens of Fredericksburg slowly returned to their ruined town. Many were destitute, and the soldiers of Lee's army generously contributed what food, clothing, and money they could spare to alleviate the civilians' suffering. The Texas Brigade alone contributed $5945 in return for the kindnesses the people of Virginia had bestowed upon them.
December 15, 1862
The coming of cold and inclement weather soon ended the possibility of continued hostilities. The Texas Brigade staked out a camp among hills and pines just north of the Massaponax River, about a mile in the rear of the line they occupied during the battle.
December 20, 1862
The brigade began to build winter quarters of varying types -- wood-framed huts packed with mud and topped with a canvas roofs were typical -- to stave off the inevitable attacks of Old Man Winter.
December 24, 1862
A large, single-story log house was erected in the center of the brigade's campsite. This house served as a theater six days a week and as a church on Sundays. Dan Collins and his renowned Fourth Texas Brass Band were one of the favorite ``little theater'' entertainment groups. A black-face troupe from the Texas Brigade, ``Hood's Minstrels'', took top billing. The band and minstrels combined for a musical extravaganza before a packed house on Christmas Eve, 1862. Gen. Hood attended the theater often, Gen. Longstreet occasionally, and Gen. Lee was reported to be in the audience at least once
The regiment was involved in the "Great Snowball Battle"
Assigned Texas Brigade, Hood's Division, Dept. Of North Carolina and Southern Virginia
The regiment broke winter camp and moved towards Richmond. Departed winter quarters on at 5 p.m. Headed south in the midst of a raging blizzard. The roads were a quagmire of frozen mud and slush, and the streams were swollen to several times their normal size.
Passed through Richmond and went into bivouac four miles south on Falling Creek. While camped near the railroad, troops engaged in stealing hats from passengers on passing trains.
February 27, 1863
The brigade was ordered several miles farther south to Falling Creek. The men camped on the south bank of the creek about 100 yards from the Richmond and Petersburg Railroad. Every day, two officers and two men from Hood's regiments were permitted to visit Richmond. ``Hood's Division,'' wrote one citizen, ``vomiting forth a motley crew into the streets of what was once the pride and boast of Virginia.'' Men who remained in camp often robbed nearby civilians.
March 10, 1863
The Ladies Aid Society of Austin donated their $925.30 profit from a recent tableaux to the brigade. With the inflated prices of goods in the Richmond area, that sum hardly bought a cup of coffee per man.
The brigade struck their tents and forced marched northward along the Richmond and Petersburg. A mile below Richmond, Hood foolishly informed the men that they were to rejoin Lee, then cautioned them not to spread the word. Advancing quickly through Richmond, the brigade left the city on the Brook Turnpike and headed toward Ashland. The men marched all day on under threatening skies with tin pans and pots tied to their waists, bread and bacon stuck on the ends of their bayonets [and] anything that could be spiked was bayoneted and held aloft. When the van of the column was within a few miles of Ashland, the orders to join Lee were cancelled. That night, the troops bivouacked along the turnpike and suffered through a cold, driving blizzard.
March 18, 1863
Shook the snow from thin blankets and headed back toward Richmond. As the brigade passed through the city, the men flocked to the bars that lined Broad Street. Gen. Jerome B. Robertson, commanding the Texas Brigade, reacted angrily to his ever-thinning column before being calmed by Gen. Hood himself. Hood reportedly said to Robertson, ``Let 'em go, General – let 'em go; they deserve a little indulgence, and you'll get them back in time for the next battle.''
Returned to camp site on Falling Creek
Assigned Texas Brigade, Hood's Division, Dept. of Southern Virginia
The regiment broke camp and marched to Petersburg.
Resumed the march southward. Passed through Jerusalem and crossed the Blackwater River on a pontoon bridge at Franklin, 20 miles west of Suffolk. (A temporary depot was established at Franklin for storage of excessive personal equipment and supplies.) On the march, the men were harassed by Federal cavalry patrols and then by infantry skirmishers as they approached Suffolk.
Reached Suffolk and immediately entrenched on the west bank of the Nansemond River, north of the town. Suffolk was well fortified and occupied by 25,000 to 30,000 troops under Federal commander, Maj. Gen. John J. Peck. A flotilla of Union gunboats patrolled the Nansemond. Longstreet's 20,000 men entrenched along a 15-mile line around the town, from the Nansemond in the north to the Great Dismal Swamp in the south. Hood's Division occupied the left or northern wing. Law's Brigade and the Texas Brigade occupied the leftmost positions near the Nansemond. Siege of Suffolk, Virginia begins. Lieut Col. Work commanding
Engaged in action with 3 gunboats on the Nansemond River. Gen. Robertson formed a special battalion of Texas sharpshooters under the command of the popular and charismatic Captain Ike Turner of Co. K, Fifth Texas. At 22 years old, Turner was the youngest captain in the Texas Brigade, and one of the most promising. Turner was subsequently hit by a Federal sharpshooter while standing atop the parapet of Fort Huger, a Confederate fortification on Hill's Point close to the confluence of the Western Branch and the Nansemond.
The regiment participated in foraging expedition along southern Virginia and North Carolina border.
April 16, 1863
Entrenched on the west bank of the Nansemond River, north of Suffolk. Gen Longstreet impressed the men of Hood's and Pickett's Divisions into the service of foraging. Men were forced to confiscate both food, wagons, and horses from area farmers. The men had little sympathy for the locals, as many of them had hitherto been profiting handsomely by overcharging both Confederate and Federal troops for their produce.
The regiment was called to rejoin main army and started moving back towards Petersburg.
May 3, 1863
Departed Suffolk after dark and marched westward along Backwater road dismantling the pontoon bridge at Franklin to slow the advance of Federal Pursuers. Brigade assumed its usual position as the rear guard
In the morning hours, skirmished with the lead elements of the Federal troops in pursuit in the morning hours. Continued march towards Richmond.
At Ivor Station on the Norfolk and Petersburg Railroad
Assigned Texas Brigade, Hood's Division, 1st Corps, Army of Northern Virginia
The brigade marched to the vicinity of Somerville and Raccoon fords on the Rapidan River and went into camp. The campsite was about a mile west of the river in a large grove of chestnut trees on a range of low hills. Despite not having tents and few blankets, the men were quite satisfied with their new camp. Received news of General Stonewall Jackson’s death.
May 11, 1863
Camped near Racoon ford and the Rapidan. The brigade enjoyed the rewards of their vast haul of food and supplies from the Suffolk campaign
Went into camp in the vicinity of Culpeper close to Raccoon Ford on the Rapidan River.
Formal review of the Division held by General Hood. The brigade held a review 600 yards from camp. There were some ladies on horseback on the field. There presence was cheering and grateful. They were all dressed in black, as were more than two-thirds of the women in the Confederacy.
Camped near Racoon ford and the Rapidan The moral of the brigade is high and the men are in fine spirits. The men cook four days rations in anticipation of a movement.
The regiment broke camp and marched 14 miles southeast toward Fredericksburg. This day, the brigade marched 14 miles though thick dust, went into bivouac in a pine grove just 20 miles from Fredericksburg, stacked arms, and remained on alert through the night.
Retraced their steps and returned to camp site near Raccoon Ford.
Forded the Rapidan and marched 15 miles toward Culpeper.
At 1 pm, the men left their camp near Culpeper and headed northeast in a driving rain toward Rappahannock Station. Slogged through mud until 10 pm, when, exhausted and wet, bivouacked by the side of the road. Bivouacked on the now familiar Cedar Mountain battlefield.. It drizzled all night. The men on the wet ground in a perfect heap; 10,000 to 20,000 men lying promiscuously on the side of a public road. The men are not allowed to make fires.
At dawn, the brigade ate a cold and soggy breakfast from their haversacks, formed ranks, and marched back over the muddy roads to their Culpeper campsite. At about 5 o’clock heard heavy cannonade from Stuart’s Cavalry fight. The men were formed and marched to lookout mountain, about three miles from Stephenburg, and lay in line of battle until the fortune of the day was decided and then returned to camp.
June 9, 1863
Some of the barefoot men are issued new shoes. Federal cannonade can be heard across the Rappahannock.
June 13, 1863
Marched five miles to Ceder Run, the scene of Stonewalls Jackson’s battle last August. . Some of the men took to opportunity to walk over the battlefield. There were a great many unburied skeletons, presenting a very ghastly appearance. There were 49 skulls in one little ditch the bodies were torn to pieces and scattered about, having been taken from their shallow graves by hogs and other animals. A hand or foot might be seen protruding from the earth here and there.
The regiment left the vicinity of Cedar Mountain and headed north up the east side of the Blue Ridge toward Ashby's Gap. The brigade marched north from Cedar Run toward Winchester through Ashby's Gap. It was a hot, sticky march of 25 miles that day to Gaines' Cross Roads, under a burning sun and brazen sky. Some. The last ten miles of the march was literally lines with some 500 men who fell by the wayside as victims of exhaustion and sunstroke, several died. This was occasioned by being overheated and drinking cold water in immoderate quantities.
June 16, 1863
The brigade marched another 20 miles to Markham Station on the Manassas Gap Railroad. Many fell by the wayside. Bivouaced near Markham station in a filed of clover. It was a very cold night.
The march continued for another 14 miles up hill and down dale through a beautiful mountainous region and bivouacked in a splendid grove of oak and hickory about one mile from Upperville
Marched 10 miles to the Shenandoah. The brigade passed through the Blue Ridge at Ashby's Gap, crossed to the west side of the Shenandoah, and bivouacked near Millwood. The Shenandoah river was deep and cold, and the men had to carry their rifles and cartridge boxes above their heads during the precarious crossing..A tremendous rain drenched the men before night.
The brigade marched down the river 10 miles over a very muddy road to Berryville, crossed to the east side of the Shenandoah, and occupied a position on a mountain near Snicker's Gap after passing through it. At sunset the men experienced hardest storm of wind and rain they had ever saw.
June 20, 1863
Rained again in the morning. The brigade marched a half a mile from camp and erected a stone fence about a half a mile long in just two hours. In the afternoon, recrossed the river and camped on the north side four miles from Berryville.
The brigade marched 10 miles down the river and three miles out from it through Millwood, and camped two miles from it within four miles of Berryville on the regular turnpike, which passes through Martinsburg.
Reached Williamsport in the rain about noon. The brigade crossed the Potomac into Maryland with the pontoon bridge clogged with artillery and wagons, most the the men removed their clothes, held their guns and accoutrements aloft, and invaded the north in a semi-naked state to the patriotic tunes of the brigade's regimental bands. After the whole brigade had crossed the river, Gen. Robertson marched the men a short distance into Maryland, had them stack rifles, and permitted them to cook their rations. During this break for lunch, each man was rewarded by Gen. Hood with one gill of whiskey from several barrels recently confiscated near Hagerstown. After much drinking when some semblance of order was restored, the brigade straggled across the narrow neck of Maryland to the vicinity of Greencastle, Pennsylvania. General Hood himself precipitated some of the most intense foraging yet done by the brigade when he reportedly said to his headquarters’ guard, ``Boys, you are now on the enemy's soil; stack your arms and pretty much do as you please...stay close by and prevent any stranger from coming here to kill me, and establish your camp here by my tent."
Resumed their march north, passing through Greencastle up the Cumberland Valley toward Chambersburg. The country was beautiful, the roads macadamized, and the buildings impressive. There was not seen a barn in the last three days but what was more substantially and carefully built and fitted out than any house...in the country of Texas. The barns were positively more tastily bult than two-thirds of the houses in Waco. As the men passed through the streets of Chambersburg, many of the townsfolk wore patriotic banners and made derisive remarks about the ragged Confederates. One woman wore a large American flag draped across her ample bosom until a Texan hollered out, ``Take care, Madam, for Hood's boys are great at storming breastworks when the Yankee colors is on them!'' The women beat a ``precipitate retreat.'' After passing through Chambersburg, the Texas Brigade camped in a grove of trees about a mile north of town. Passed through Greencastle with the band playing "Dixie".
The daylight hours were devoted exclusively to gormandizing until at 3 p.m. marching orders came and leaving more provisions than carried, the men moved lazily...into line'' -- bound for Cashtown and Gettysburg. The men reached Fayetteville that evening and there went into bivouac at about dusk.
The Battle of Gettysburg. Lieut Col. Work commanding. In the morning, the brigade left its bivouac at Fayettesville and resumed its march along the Chambersburg Pike toward Cashtown, which lay 12 miles to the east. The movement was delayed several hours when Gen. Edward Johnson's Division of Ewell's Second Corps cut across its line of march. The column would advance a hundred yards or so, and then stop and stand still, the men not daring to sit down, for five, ten, or twenty minutes at a time.'
July 2, 1863
The brigade finally reached Cashtown at 2 am after marching all night. There the men were permitted to stack arms and rest. The men had rested but two hours when they received orders to resume their march toward Gettysburg, which was 8 miles further east along the pike. The brigade reached Gen. Lee's headquarters, just west of the town and south of the pike, an hour after sunrise. After a short delay, the brigade moved about a mile southwest to the valley of Willoughby Run behind Seminary Ridge. Here the brigade cooked breakfast and rested. At about noon the brigade started its movement south toward the destination near the Wheatfield and the Emmitsburg Road. By 4 pm, the brigade was in place deployed in two lines of two brigades astride the Emmitsburg Road about 2 3/4 miles south of the Lutheran Seminary. The Federal artillery began taking its toll the brigade moved to a less vulnerable position and lied down to minimize casualties. It was just after 4 pm. When the brigade was ordered forward. As the brigade continued its advance across open fields into woods and rocky terrain, a large gap developed between the First and Fourth Texas. Federal fire from woods on the left forced the Third Arkansas and the First Texas to veer further left to answer the attack. The breach in the brigade was not exploited by the Federals and was soon plugged by the Forty-fourth and Forty-eighth Alabama. The First Texas and the Twentieth Georgia of Benning's Brigade captured a Federal battery. A stone wall was hastily erected in anticipation of renewed battle in the morning.
July 3, 1863
At daylight the scattered remnants of the brigade were unified and occupied a sector along Plum Run between Devil's Den and Big Round Top. This would become part of the main defensive line thoughout the day. The right was relatively quiet. Sniper fire persisted throughout the day, and occasionally a shell would explode amidst the sparse ranks. Federal cavalry twice appeared on the flank and rear., but each time the horsemen were driven off by Law's artillery and infantry. The First Texas was the only regiment of the brigade engaged in these operations. Late in the afternoon, the brigade withdrew from its forward position to a line near the Emmitsburg Road. Here they remained through the day awaiting a Federal attack that never came..
Remained in battle positions
Marched towards Fairfield
July 6, 1863
The brigade reached Hagerstown late in the afternoon. Camped southeast of town on the Sharpsburg Road. The brigade had went without meat and had little bread since Gettysburg.
The regiment reached Hagerstown and took up position with their backs to the Potomac River.
At dawn on the 14th the brigade crossed the Potomac under the eye of General Lee. Each soldier bared his head. There was no salute, no cheer and no word was spoken as the men marched silently by General Lee. The brigade then marched eight miles to Martinsburg, where it bivouacked for the night.
The regiment bivouacked at Bunker Hill for 4 days.
Passed through Chester Gap
The regiment went into camp at Culpeper Court House and remained there for 7 days.
July 25, 1863
Bivouacked at Culpeper Court House. Here they drew rations, supplies, and equipment, and wrote home of their great adventure into Pennsylvania
Broke camp, moved southeast along the Rapidan River.
The regiment bivouacked at Racoon Ford
Moved down the Rapidan and along the Rappahannock to Fredericksburg.
The regiment went into camp in the vicinity of Fredericksburg for three weeks.
August 7, 1863
Relaxing, drew supplies, and guarding the fords of the Rappahannock. Picketed a twelve mile stretch of the river between the United States Ford above Fredericksburg to a point a mile below the town. Established a semi-permanent camp just below the town. The men ate well, were in fine spirits, and received new uniforms from the Richmond Depot and new shoes from England that had been run through the Union blockade.
August 13, 1863
Camped at Fredericksburg. The brigade was paid up to July 1st. A great many bet at cards, who would never do so at home, because the have nothing else to do. It is sort of a frolic and past time, and a good many have already lost all they had.
Assigned Texas Brigade, Hoods Division, Longstreet's Corps, Army of Tennessee
The brigade moved about 20 miles below Fredericksburg to Rappahannock Academy near Port Royal and posted pickets at all river crossings, a sizeable number of whom had recently been spotted in the areaSeptember 8, 1863
The regiment moved to Bowling Green and boarded train for Richmond.
Arrived in Richmond. Many of the men took their time journeying south through the city to the depot of the Richmond and Petersburg Railroad. On the way, many visited the now familiar taverns and became quite drunk. Fortunately, enough men remained sober enough to heard the drunkards onto the railroad cars headed south. While in Richmond, Gen. Hood was implored to accompany the brigade to Georgia. Although he had the use of only one arm, Hood agreed and boarded the train with his favorite horse, a roan named ``Jeff Davis.'' The railroads along the way were of different gauges, which required much unloading and reloading of troops onto rickety rolling stock. At every stop, the men were greeted with cheers, kisses, food, and clothing. The more ragged the soldier, the greater the benefits bestowed upon him, Left Richmond by train heading south.
September 10, 1863
While in Wilmington, North Carolina, the brigade made its presence known in the unsavory waterfront section known as ``Paddy's Hollow.'' Having had several rounds of John Barleycorn, the men became boisterous and obnoxious. When a local police force was summoned to expel the revellers, the men mistook the officers in their blue uniforms for Yankees, formed a battle line, and staggered to a charge. One constable in his late fifties was badly beaten about the face, another was knocked down by a shillelagh blow to the ear, and a third officer suffered two knife wounds in his side. The policemen withdrew, leaving the waterfront to the mercy of the rowdy men.
September 11, 1983
At Sumter, South Carolina, a spread of food was prepared expressly for Hood's Texas Brigade. The train stopped just 15 minutes to allow the men to feast at long tables spread with goodies. All were happy lords, yet knowing at the same time that we were going into another big killing and that many of us would go to our long homes.
Reached a burnt bridge near Catoosa Station, Georgia. Unloaded the equipment, prepared supper, and bivouacked for the night at nearby Ringgold. The brigade was the first of Hood's men to reach Ringgold. The brigade was transported by rail through Weldon, Wilmington, and Florence, North Carolina, to Kingsville, South Carolina, and then through Augusta, Atlanta, and Dalton, Georgia to Catoosa Station, the railway stop for Ringgold, Georgia.
About 3 pm Johnson's Division was preparing to cross the Chickamauga when Gen. Hood, who had arrive at Catoosa Station a few hours after the brigade, arrived and assumed command of the Provisional Division. Hood sent skirmishers forward to support Forrest and ordered Maj. Felix H. Robertson's Artillery Battalion forward and to unlimber. (Robertson was the son of Gen. Jerome B. Robertson, commander of the Texas Brigade.) Hood's Division then crossed the Chickamauga at Reed's Bridge, advanced a quarter of a mile to Jay's Stream Saw Mill, turned south at the mill, and advanced down the west side of the Chickamauga. After a march of two miles, the column halted at dusk. The brigade were opposite Dalton's Ford and about 800 yards east of the Viniard House on the Lafayette-Chattanooga Road, where a corps of 14,000 Federals under Gen. Thomas L. Crittenden were deployed. Hood's Division was the only Confederate force west of the river. The brigades were placed in a defensive position facing three sides. The Texas Brigade faced northwest toward the Viniard House and the Lafayette-Chattanooga Road. One-third of the men were required to remain on duty through the night, while the remaining two-thirds were ordered to sleep on their arms. Throughout the night, could hear the ring of axes and rumbling of artillery as the Federals constructed breastworks and moved their guns into position.
The Battle of Chickamauga. Lieut Col. Work commanding, At 3:00 moved forward engage heavy enemy force on hill. Took hill with heavy losses. Held the hill for the night.
September 20, 1863
At 11:00 am attacked gap in Federal lines and drove the enemy back for a confederate victory. Brigade suffered 540 men killed, wounded or missing., 44% of General Robertson’s Brigade.
The siege of Chattanooga. Lieut Col. Work commanding. In the morning, the brigade reached the Confederate siege line south of Chattanooga and moved to its assigned position on the left of the line. The Texas Brigade was stationed about a mile and a half east of the northern foot of Lookout Mountain. This location was near where Chattanooga Creek empties in the Tennessee River. Here, the brigade constructed some of the most extensive trenches and breastworks built to date. The First and has only about 100 men each fit for duty.
Entrenched a mile and a half of the Northern side of lookout Mountain. Short of food. The men are receiving an unvarying diet of musty corn, blue beef, and contaminated water which left many of the men sick with diarrhea.
October 20, 1863
Entrenched a mile and a half of the Northern side of lookout Mountain. During the time of high waters, last week, the men were almost without food for four days. The rains, however, have ceased, and the men have their usual supply. The principle article of breadstuff is the coarsest kind of cornmeal. Stuff it is, and make no mistake. Occasionally the men get flour, some rice, and, once in a while can purchase Irish potatoes; but this is an exhausted, mountainous, poor country.
October 23, 1863
Entrenched a mile and a half of the Northern side of lookout Mountain. Several of the men are assigned as scouts and sharp shooters with the task of preventing boats loaded with provisions from landing above Chattanooga and reaching the Federal garrison stationed there. Twice Dearing led a band of men downriver, surprised a ferry boat laden with goods, and killed or captured several officers and men. Some of the men are issued the caputure supplies such as shoes.
The Battle of Wauhatchie
Assigned Texas Brigade, Hood's-Jenkins'-Field's Division, Dept. Of East Tennessee
November 1, 1863
Bivouaced at eastern slop of Lookout Mountain. Gen. Longstreet wrote to Col. William Brent, Chief of Staff of the Army of Tennessee, requesting that Gen. Jerome B. Robertson be relieved of command of the Texas Brigade. Longstreet charged that ``this officer has been complained of so frequently for want of conduct in time of battle that I apprehend that the abandonment by his brigade of its position on the night of the 28th [October] may have been due to his want of hearty co-operation.''
November 4, 1863
Bivouaced at eastern slop of Lookout Mountain. The division was ordered to march to the tunnel through Missionary Ridge, where it would board the trains of the East Tennessee and Georgia Railroad the next day. Each man received ten days' rations of fresh beef and corn meal, which were to be cooked immediately. The cooking utensils departed camp early, however, so the men had to bake their bread ``in the ashes.'' The board began hearing testimony but the proceedings were disrupted by the detachment of the divisions from the siege of Chattanooga
The regiment left the vicinity of Chattanooga and moved east and north towards Tyner's Station. Began march to Missionary Ridge. As the men moved out many discarded greasy decks of cards from their pockets or haversacks. The men did not wish to be found killed in their next engagement with such items in their possession. Upon arriving at the tunnel, the men found no train awaiting them and continued marching to Tyner's Station about 10 miles further east.
November 5, 1863
The brigade reached Tyner's Station early in the morning after an all-night march along a half-frozen road in a sleet storm. The men are cold and unhappy
Moved north to Cleveland
Boarded train heading towards Knoxville via Sweetwater
November 10, 1863
Gen Robertson was restored to command pending resumption of his board of inquiry. With no prospects for transportation in sight, Gen. Robertson marched his command 20 miles to Cleveland.
November 11, 1863
The brigade arrived at Cleveland in the afternoon. The trains finally caught up. The men gladly left the frozen roads for the rail cars, but soon found that progress aboard the train was little faster than that which they had already made on foot. The dilapidated rolling stock provided by Bragg's quartermaster was built of heavy material, while the engines were of lightweight construction. Every time the train reached a hill, the passengers had to debark, march alongside the rails, and reboard the train on the downgrade. Occasionally, the men had to bail water from streams and cut up rail fences in order to keep the engines going
The brigade left the cars of the East Tennessee and Georgia Railroad at Sweetwater, Tennessee -- the rendezvous point for Longstreet's infantry and artillery and the cavalry division of Gen. ``Fighting Joe'' Wheeler. The brigade was ordered to march cautiously along the tracks toward Loudon, which lay on the south bank of the Tennessee River some 20 miles southwest of Knoxville.
November 15, 1863
Sharp skirmishes were fought at Lenoir's Station. Captured sixty wagons at Lenior and large quantities of ammunition and medical stores. Along with 500 to 600 winter cabins better furnished than homes in Texas.
Sharp skirmishes were fought at Campbell's Station. Fearing a Federal cavalry attack on his lines of communications, Longstreet ordered the brigade back to Loudon
The siege of Knoxville. Lieut Col. Work commanding
Crossed the Tennessee River and moved to Knoxville
The regiment crossed to south side of the Tennessee and took up positions opposite Union held Fort Higley
November 23, 1863
The brigade, after much long-range skirmishing and under artillery fire, opened the attack on the main Federal line. The Yankees resisted stubbornly at first, but they eventually gave way in disorder and retreated to a prepared defensive position on the crest of a high ridge.
November 24, 1863
The brigade kept up a steady fire against the Federal position. Two privates were forced to walk six miles to find a taker for their Confederate tender. After a hard day of tramping through the rain, they had exchanged one month's pay ($11 each) for two chickens, two dozen apples, and four canteens of molasses.
November 26, 1863
Gen. Robertson then withdrew his command to Cherokee Heights, a series of high hills about 1000 yards west of Fort Higley, and set up a defense line. From this position, the Texas Brigade exchanged sniper fire with the Federals at Fort Higley and across the river. Under a more constant and vigorous sniper fire than any other command. While in their defensive position on Cherokee Heights, the Texans at last had an opportunity to rectify by their own efforts the inadequate food and supplies provided by the commissary of the Army of Tennessee. Several members of the Fourth Texas engaged in bartering and foraging in the depleted and desolate area south of the Holston. Yanks had taken everything from the citizens of the neighbourhood, chickens, ducks, turkeys, hogs, etc
Longstreet attacked Knoxville but the attacked failed miserably. The brigade launched a diversionary attack on Fort Higley south of the Holston, lost but one man killed and one wounded.
December 2, 1863
Longstreet ordered a retreat to Bristol, Virginia, where he planned to encamp for the winter. The route of retreat was north around Knoxville and then northeast along the north bank of the Holston River. The brigade along with Law's Brigade, accompanied by a battery of E. Porter Alexander's artillery, were to guard the trains.
December 3, 1863
Law's and Robertson's Brigades vigorously attacked the Federals to their front in an attempt to conceal the withdrawal. After withstanding the Confederate attacks until noon, the Federals retreated to a second line of entrenchments nearer the Holston. The two brigades then quietly withdrew westward, crossed to the north bank of the river by ferry in the early evening, and marched north around Knoxville
In the morning, the brigade led the advance of Longstreet's command eastward from Knoxville. Convinced that they were about to return to Lee's army, the men sang repeated choruses of ``Carry Me Back to Ole Virginny.'' The brigade followed the East Tennessee and Virginia Railroad along the north bank of the Holston for about ten miles, and then crossed to the south bank by means of the railroad bridge at Strawberry Plains. Here, about a mile from the river, the brigade camped for the night.
December 5, 1863
The brigade, still guarding the baggage and ordnance trains, followed the track of the East Tennessee and Virginia Railroad along the western slope of the Bays Mountains. The brigade passed through New Market.
Bivouacked at Rogersville
Skirmish at Bean's Station
The regiment bivouacked at Bean's Station for 10 days. Longstreet received another telegram from Davis informing him that he had been given sole authority over the troops in his Department of East Tennessee. Gen. Robertson wrote to Gen. Hood that the brigade carried on its rolls only 784 men ``present for duty,'' of which ``many'' were ``not fit to march.'' Thus, the brigade now has the effective strength of an undersized regiment. Gen. Robertson proposed to Hood that the Texas Brigade be sent back to Texas for the winter to recuperate and recruit, and then rejoin Longstreet west of the Mississippi on or about April 1, 1864.
December 13, 1863
The brigade marched to the vicinity of Bean's Station to support a cavalry action. Although they were under occasional artillery fire, the brigade did not see action in what turned out to be a minor engagement in which the Federal forces escaped westward. Bivouacked in vicinity of Bean’s Station.
Moved south and crossed the Holston River. Some of the men have been barefoot for three or four weeks. The men are on half rations
The brigade crossed the Holston River with the rest of Longstreet's infantry and went into winter quarters at Morristown. Morristown iss located on the East Tennessee and Virginia Railroad in the fertile valley between the Holston and French Broad Rivers about 40 miles northeast of Knoxville. The brigade camped on top of a wooded hill one mile north of town. Here the water supply was ample and the foraging opportunities good.
December 25, 1863
Christmas Day. Most of the men prepared their last items captured from the Yankees around Knoxville. After eating heartily and passing along rumors of the brigade's imminent movement westward across the Mississippi (no doubt a reference to Robertson's proposal to Hood).
December 27, 1863
By this time it has become clear to the men that Morristown is to be a fairly permanent camp site, so construction is started on more substantial winter quarters
January 5, 1864
Lieut. Col. Phillip Work resigns on account of health
Broke winter camp and moved west towards Chesterfield.
Februray 12, 1864
Field succeeded Jenkins as division commander
Bivoucked near Chesterfield for 7 days.
Headed back east towards Bull's Gap
The regiment took up positions in winter quarters at Bull's Gap.
The regiment broke winter camp and moved south towards Greenville. Late March Brigade ordered back to Virginia, John Gregg Replaced Robertson, New Issue of uniforms and shoes.
Moved northeast towards Zollicoffer, Tennessee
Went into camp at Zollicoffer for 10 days.
Assigned Texas Brigade, Field's Division, 1st Corps, Army of Northern Virginia
Moved to Bristol, Tennessee. Gen. Longstreet is ordered to rejoin Gen. Lee
The regiment boarded train to Lynchburg.
Bivoucked at Lynchburg
Boarded train to Charlottesville
The regiment left the train at Charlottesville headed towards Cobham Station and camped.
Review and inspection of the Division held by General Field.
Review of 1st Corps held by General Lee.
Moved towards Gordonsville and bivoucked north of town.
Moved east down the Catharpin Road towards the wilderness.
The Battle of the Wilderness. Lieut Col Harding Commanding?
The regiment buried their dead, and that night moved towards Spotsylvania Court House.
The Battle of Spotsylvania Court House
Moved towards the North Anna River
The Battle of North Anna
Moved south towards Ashland Station
The regiment entrenched in vicinity of Gaines' Mill and New Cold Harbor.
The Battle of Cold Harbor
Moved south and crossed the Chickahominy and bivoucked near the old Frayser's Farm battlefield.
Moved south and crossed the James River near Drewry's Bluff.
The regiment occupied the lines at Bermuda Hundred.
The siege of Petersburg
Moved to Dunlap's Station
The regiment boarded the train to Richmond and went into lines on New Market Heights.
The siege of Richmond
Skirmish at White Oak Swamp
Soiree held at Chaffin's Bluff camp
The Battle of Chaffin's Farm
The Battle of Darbytown Road. Attack against union repeating rifles. Attack fails and 1st is pushed back. During the fighting, General Gregg is killed. Col Bass assigned command of Texas Brigade. Attack against union repeating rifles. Attack fails and 1st is pushed back. Unit reduced to 600 men. Spent winter in Richmond trenches.
Skirmish at Williamsburg Road
The regiment went into winter camp 8 miles east of Richmond on the Charles City Road.
Skirmish at New Market Road
Col. Bass returned to command 1st Texas
The regiment broke camp, moved to Richmond and boarded train to Petersburg Col Bass Commanding.
Evacuated Petersburg and moved west as rear guard to main army. Col Bass Commanding.
Bivouacked at Amelia Court House
Skirmish at Rice's Station
Skirmish at Farmville
Bivouacked 2 miles east of Appomattox Court House.
In their last operational march the regiment marched 1 mile towards Appomattox Court House. Col Bass Commanding. General Lee surrendered his Army of Northern Virginia.
The troops surrendered their weapons and received their paroles.
Sergeant Thomas Macon Mullens of Co. E is last man in the regiment to surrender.